حرابه. وكالة الصحافة اليمنية

This was the only capital penalty permitted rulers by the in the case of murder the killer's fate was in the hands of the victim's next of kin not the judge during the early years of Islam "when enemies of the faith and political rebels often looked frighteningly similar" the crime had broader application including but was "gradually narrowed" to apply only to "highway robbery in the open county Al-Dasuqi, for example, a Maliki jurist, held that if a person forced a woman to have sex, his actions would be deemed committing hiraba
According to , "at least nine people" convicted of moharebeh by for "their alleged ties to armed opposition groups" were executed in 2014 " He was later convicted of lesser charges

Others accused, charged or convicted of Moharebeh include , whose death sentence for Moharebeh was overturned in 2008 on appeal, and , whose death sentence was commuted to life in prison.

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قبائل حرب(حرابة الدول)
The term is widely used by , citing law, and is "usually used against those who take up arms against the state," and usually carries the death penalty
ما هو حد الحرابة في الإسلام
In view of the broad and strong language of the verse, however, various state representatives beginning with the Umayyads have asserted that it applied to rebels in general
وكالة الصحافة اليمنية
In the school of law, the term zina is taken to refer to illegal sexual intercourse where rape is distinguished as zina bil jabr to indicate its forced and non-consensual nature whereas fornication and adultery fit zina bil ridha, which indicates consent
Additionally, the Zamfara penal code in effect in the North of Nigeria provides that if life and property are taken during the commission of hirabah, the penalty is Though the terminology uses the term zina, nonetheless, they are two categorically different crimes as rape is treated as a tazeer discretionary crime by the judge and prosecuted based on circumstantial evidence medical evidence, any number of witnesses, and other forensic evidence
" The charge is levied against people who commit acts against the government Nonetheless, gang rape or public rape, such as the sort that occurs during war, is still traditionally considered hirabah as that is more in line with its classical definition as a war crime or crime against civilization and society

It is fornication and adultery by mutual consent, or zina bil ridha, which retain their classical hadd punishments from the Qur'an and provided there are four witnesses absent which they too default to tazeer, subject to discretionary punishments such as fining, imprisonment, or lashes.

مقتل سائق شاحنة برصاص مسلحين بأبين
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مقتل سائق شاحنة برصاص مسلحين بأبين
" It served historically to humiliate rather than kill, but it could be combined with execution, because the holy book acknowledged those crimes -- uniquely -- as capital offenses
ناجي حرابة
In Jane Dammen McAuliffe ed
Bahrampur, Abolfazl 2 December 2019 Crane, who asserts that "There is no such thing as Islamic terrorism", argues that to use jihad in English is to mirror the language of those terrorists, while the word hirabah uses the same religious vocabulary to stigmatize them
Saudi Arabia [ ] In Saudi Arabia Hirabah is defined as "Armed Robbery" g: taking up arms for terrorism and disruption of public safety article 183 , membership in groups conducting armed uprising article 186 , supporting groups planning to overthrow the government by force using weapons and explosives article 187 , accepting critical posts a Coup d'etat government

Both are often applied against armed robbers, kidnappers, and rapists.

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قبائل حرب(حرابة الدول)
"To prove hirabah, two witnesses must testify or there must be a confession
وكالة الصحافة اليمنية
In current legal systems [ ] Iran [ ] See also: In Iran, hiraba is known as moharebeh and is translated variously in English-language media as "waging war against God," "war against God and the state," or "enmity against God
حرابة : definition of حرابة and synonyms of حرابة (Arabic)
Typical convicts under the term are members of armed ethnic separatist groups, members of armed drug trafficking groups, and people involved in armed robbery